Jews had to have regarded all this with envy. According to Strohmaier, he was the most important mediator of ancient Greek science to the Arabs.' Thabit ibn Qurrah (d.288/901) of Harran, a Syriac speaking person who wrote and translated into Arabic, was associated with Banu Musa ibn Shakir by whom he was inspired. To the religious and intellectual aspects of the situation but also to the economic, social, and political pressures to which contemporary Mecca was subject." 211 Bernard Lewis says there are two important political traditions in Islam Muhammad as a statesman in Medina, and Muhammad. "The Torah, held to be the most ancient of histories, existeth today in three separate versions: the Hebrew, considered authentic by the Jews and the Protestant clergy; the Greek Septuagint, which was used as authoritative in the Greek and other eastern churches; and the Samaritan. 88 89 In 615, some of Muhammad's followers emigrated to the Ethiopian Kingdom of Aksum and founded a small colony under the protection of the Christian Ethiopian emperor Aama ibn Abjar.
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Hadiths were compiled several generations after his death by followers including Muhammad al-Bukhari, Muslim ibn al-Hajjaj, Muhammad ibn Isa at-Tirmidhi, Abd ar-Rahman al-Nasai, Abu Dawood, Ibn Majah, Malik ibn Anas, al-Daraqutni. Moreover, modern scholars, including Rgis Morelon 97 have recognised the fact that astronomy held a pride of place among medieval Arabs and Muslims of diverse ethnic backgrounds. A scientific invention is simply the weaving together of separate threads and the tying of new knots. Beyond these two foundational classics, some fourth-/tenth-century scholars refer to a four-book selection that adds the two Sunans of Ab Dwd (d. 3, Leiden, 1986,. 17 Umar ibn al-Khattab, a prominent companion of Muhammad, nominated Abu Bakr, Muhammad's friend and collaborator.