results of measurement or observation meet the standards of quality to be considered valid trustworthy and reliable dependable. Expectancy Effect - any unconscious or conscious cues that convey to the participant in a study how the researcher wants them to respond. Position paper, an essay that represents the author's opinion. The goal of this type of research is to comprehend the particular group/culture through immersion into the culture or group. Random sample selection is used under the assumption that sufficiently large samples assigned randomly will exhibit a distribution comparable to that of the population from which the sample is drawn. University of Southampton; Jupp, Victor. It is the view that reality cannot be understood outside of the way humans interact and that the idea that knowledge is constructed, not discovered. Expecting someone to behave in a particular way has been shown to promote the expected behavior. Policy Analysis - systematic study of the nature, rationale, cost, impact, effectiveness, implications, etc., of existing or alternative policies, using the theories and methodologies of relevant social science disciplines. A white paper seeks to contain unbiased information and analysis regarding a business or policy problem that the researchers may be facing.
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Dependent Variable - a variable that varies due, at least in part, to the impact of the independent variable. An unreliable indicator cannot produce trustworthy results. Predictive Measurement - use of tests, inventories, or other measures to determine or estimate future events, conditions, outcomes, or trends. In studies that do not explore causal relationships, only the first of these definitions should be considered when assessing internal validity. Construct Validity - seeks an agreement between a theoretical concept and a specific measuring device, such as observation. Life History - a record of an event/events in a respondent's life told written down, but increasingly audio or video recorded by the respondent from his/her own perspective in his/her own words. Colorado State University; Glossary A-Z. Principal Investigator - the scientist or scholar with primary responsibility for the design and conduct of a research argument essay for capital punishment project. Control Group - the group in an experimental design that receives either no treatment or a different treatment from the experimental group. Random Sampling - a process used in research to draw a sample of a population strictly by chance, yielding no discernible pattern beyond chance. Mixed-Methods - a research approach that uses two or more methods from both the quantitative and qualitative research categories. Deductive - a form of reasoning in which conclusions are formulated about particulars from general or universal premises.
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